Archive for the ‘Influenza viruses’ Category

Virology Africa 2015: Update and Registration

19 August, 2015


On behalf of the Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine of the University of Cape Town and the Poliomyelitis Research Foundation, we are pleased to invite you to Virology Africa 2015 at the Cape Town Waterfront.


The conference will run from Tuesday 1st – Thursday 3rd December 2015. The conference venue is the Radisson Blu Hotel with a magnificent view of the ocean. The hotel school next door will host the cocktail party on the Monday night 30th November and in keeping with Virology Africa tradition, the dinner venue is the Two Oceans Aquarium.


Early Bird Registration closes – 30 September 2015
Abstract Submissions deadline – 30 September 2015

The ACADEMIC PROGRAMME will include plenary-type presentations from internationally recognised speakers. We wish to emphasise that this is intended as a general virology conference – which means we will welcome plant, human, animal and bacterial virology contributions. The venue will allow for parallel workshops of oral presentations. There will also be poster sessions. Senior students will be encouraged to present their research. We have sponsorship for students to attend the meeting and details will be announced later in the year.

A program outline has been added to the website


Our preliminary programme includes two workshops.

There is a hands-on workshop on “Plant cell packs for transient expression: Innovating the field of molecular biopharming”, with the contact person being Dr Inga Hitzeroth – This workshop will run at UCT one day before the conference, 30th November, and a second day, 4th December, after the conference.

The second workshop is on “”Viromics for virus discovery and viral community analysis”. The workshop at UCT will be on 4 and 5 December with the contact person being Dr Tracy Meiring –

Some of the workshop presenters will be integrated into the conference programme but the practical components will be run at University of Cape Town. Separate applications are necessary for each workshop.

If you are prepared to fund an internationally recognised scientist to speak at the conference or if you wish to organise a specialist workshop as part of the conference, please contact
Anna-Lise Williamson or Ed Rybicki.

For any enquiries please contact
Miss Bridget Petersen/ Email: or phone: +27 21 486 9111
Ms Deborah McTeer/Email: or +27 83 457 1975

Anyone interested? A candidate virology textbook…

28 July, 2015

I would like to test the response to a Introduction to Virology ebook that I want to develop from my extant Web-based material, given that this is likely to disappear soon with our Web renewal project here at UCT.


Download the Virus Picture Book excerpt here. And then please tell me what you think / whether you would buy one (projected price US$15 – 20)?  Ta!

Influenza virus: a short introduction

14 July, 2015

This is excerpted from the ebook “Influenza Virus. Introduction to a Killer”, which is available here for US$9.99 .

Influenza: the disease

Influenza: a disease and a virus

Influenza as a disease in humans has been known for centuries; however, its cause was only discovered in the early 20th century: this was the group of viruses now known as Influenza virus types A, B and C.

There are several influenza viruses circulating in humans at any one time; these cause “seasonal flu”, which is usually a mild disease because most people have some degree of immunity.

Influenza pandemics, however, are caused by novel viruses – which are generally derived from animals, and usually originate in birds.  Here, the disease can be much more severe.

Influenza viruses have caused some of the biggest and yet some of the most insidious disease outbreaks to have hit humankind: from 1918 to 1920, the “Spanish Flu” pandemic killed more than 60 million people across the world; subsequent pandemics in 1957, 1968 and 1977 killed millions more, and the count is still unclear on the 2009 pandemic. However, in any given year more than 400 000 people probably die of so-called “seasonal flu” – yet universal vaccination against it is still a dream.

What is Influenza?

What is Influenza?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA define influenza as

“…a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death.”

The disease is transmitted mainly via droplets of respiratory secretions: these result from sneezing or coughing, which blows out a fine cloud of droplets or aerosol from the upper airways of infected people.  Breathing in or inhalation of these droplets – which can happen from 2 metres away – or transfer of droplets by hand from a contaminated surface to the mouth, is enough to cause infection. 

The virus initially infects cells of the upper airway, or the respiratory epithelium.  Spread to lower parts of the respiratory system, such as into the lung, depends upon the particular virus, and whether or not the individual is partially immune.

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Rhinitis, or runny nose
  • Muscle or body aches, headaches
  • Tiredness, “fuzzy head”
  • Vomiting and/or diarrhoea (more common in children than adults).

The average incubation period, or time from infection to disease, is about 48 hours.  Full recovery can take a month, although about two weeks is more common in seasonal flu.  People can pass on the virus before they show symptoms, and each infected person on average infects another 1.4 people.

While flu may be mild enough that it is hardly noticed, severe disease can also occur – especially in the elderly, the very young, heavy smokers, people who are chronically ill from other causes – and immunocompromised individuals.

While the virus can cause pneumonia directly due to damaging lung tissue, as happened in the “Spanish Flu” pandemic, severe illness with pneumonia is more usually due to secondary bacterial infections – which can be treated with antibiotics, unlike the viral pneumonia

Seasonal flu, or the disease caused by viruses circulating in the population, typically has an “attack rate” of between 5-15% of the population in annual epidemics.  Case fatality rates, or deaths among those infected, are usually between 0.1 – 0.3%. However,  pandemic flu – caused by new strains which arise spontaneously, and to which people are not immune – can attack from 25-50%, and kill 5% of those infected.  Seasonal flu also mainly infects children – because older people are often immune – but mainly causes severe disease and death in the elderly: up to 90% of victims are usually 65 or older

Conversely, pandemic strains may affect a different set of age groups: for example, the Spanish Flu affected mainly healthy young adults.

Seasonal influenza is typically a disease of the autumn and winter seasons in temperate zones – meaning October – March in the northern hemisphere, and April – August in the southern.  The CDC FluView graph shown here clearly illustrates the cyclical nature of seasonal flu, tracked in the USA over a 5 year period.  However, the exact timing is not reliable, and epidemics may peak as early as October in the north, or April in the south, or as late as the end of the season.

Tropical zones have a different epidemic profile:

here the virus may circulate year-round, typically with a peak during the one or two rainy seasons.  Because of demographic reasons incidence is severely under-reported: however, in a seasonal outbreak in Madagascar in 2002, there were more than 27 000 cases reported in 3 months, with over 800 deaths for a case-fatality rate of around 3%.  A WHO coordinated investigation of this outbreak found that there were severe health consequences in poorly nourished populations with limited access to adequate health care.

Why is influenza seasonal?

Many reasons have been invoked over the years to explain this, ranging from temperature, humidity, school schedules, increased indoor crowding during winter or rainy seasons, and even variations in host immunity due to lack of vitamin D or melatonin.  However, the same reasons cannot be given for both the increase in influenza incidence in temperate climates with the onset of winter, and the rainy season peaks in tropical regions, given the very different environmental conditions prevailing.

A recent study set out to systematically determine the interactions between relative humidity, and salt and mucus and protein content of droplets containing live flu virus, on the viability of the virus – and came up with conclusions that could explain the temperate / tropical transmission differences.

Essentially, their explanation for temperate region seasonality is that there is low relative humidity indoors in winter due to heating: this leads to increased survival of virus due to drying of particles – influenza A viruses are stabilised by being dried in the presence of salts, mucus and proteins – and leads to aerosols persisting longer in the interior environment due to smaller size, and being propagated further, meaning most transmission would be by this route.  Increased time spent indoors and increased indoor crowding due to the climate would obviously increase transmission rates under these conditions. 

Tropical environments present a very different picture: here, high temperatures would accelerate virion decay, which would tend to decrease any transmission.  However, in rainy seasons, temperatures drop and relative humidity increases to nearly 100% – conditions conducive to survival of large drops, which settle out quickly onto surfaces, where the virus remains viable.  Thus, transmission could be mainly by surface contact.  The same social factors apply as for temperate climates, with frequent rain leading to more time indoors and more crowding – and a greater opportunity for transmission.

Creating more effective vaccines against flu virus

4 July, 2015

Flu vaccines can be something of a shot in the dark. Not only must they be given yearly, there’s no guarantee the strains against which they protect will be the ones circulating once the season arrives. New research by Rockefeller University scientists and their colleagues suggests it may be possible to harness a previously unknown mechanism within the immune system to create more effective and efficient vaccines against this ever-mutating virus.

Sourced through from:

So: antibody-antigen complexes work better than antigen alone – and sialylation of the antibody is important.  Vaccinology really is entering the 21st century!

See on Scoop.itVirology News

The guru speaks: new eBooks on viruses!

24 June, 2015

I have to thank my long-time digital media guru, Alan J Cann, for reviewing our humble eBook offerings in MicrobiologyBytes.  You good man!  Much appreciated, and it will not have escaped our attention that this endorsement may actually result in sales.  If so, a glass or three of the finest red is yours if you come to these shores, good sir B-)

eBook on “Influenza Virus: Introduction to a Killer”

17 June, 2015

For some five years now, I have been simultaneously writing two ebooks on viruses. The one – originally part of a longer effort not yet finished – is “A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses” which is also advertised on Virology News; the other is a labour of love on influenza.

Labour of love for me because I got more into it the more I read, and because Russell Kightley’s images were so amazing.

Both were written using Apple’s iBooks Author app; both are designed to be read by Apple’s iBooks app on iPad, iPhone or Mac.

So here it is:

Influenza Virus: Introduction to a Killer

Enjoy. Buy!



Tracing the bird flu outbreak in North American poultry flocks

14 May, 2015

(Reuters) – The United States is facing its worst outbreak on record of avian influenza as three deadly strains have hit North American poultry flocks since December, with the spread of infection picking


Useful timeline!

See on Scoop.itVirology News

A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses

6 March, 2015

Now much updated, streamlined, added to and otherwise tarted up!  This is the Web version of an eBook, which you can now get here:

A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses – Edward Rybicki


Part 1: Filters and Discovery

Part 2: The Ultracentrifuge, Eggs and Flu

Part 3: Phages, Cell Culture and Polio

Part 4: RNA Genomes and Modern Virology

Sidebar 1: The Discovery of Filoviruses

Sidebar 2: Papillomaviruses and Human Cancer

Sidebar 3: Epstein-Barr Virus and Hepatitis B Virus

Sidebar 4: Human Retroviruses and Cancer

Sidebar 5: Maize Streak Virus: The Early History

Sidebar 6: Rinderpest and Its Eradication

Sidebar 7: Viruses and human cancer: the molecular age

Copyright Edward P Rybicki and Russell Kightley, February and March 2015, except where otherwise noted.

Virology Africa 2015: consider yourselves notified!

7 November, 2014

Dear ViroBlogy and Virology News followers:

Anna-Lise Williamson and I plan to have another in our irregular series of “Virology Africa” conferences in November-December 2015, in Cape Town.

As previously, the conference will run over 3 days or so, possibly with associated workshops, and while the venue is not decided, we would like to base it at least partially in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront.

We also intend to cover the whole spectrum of virology, from human through animal to plant; clinical aspects and biotechnology.

We intend to make it as cheap as possible so that students can come. We will also not be inviting a slate of international speakers, as we have found that we always get quite an impressive slate without having to fund them fully.

It is also the intention to have a Plant Molecular Farming workshop – concentrating on plant-made vaccines – concurrently with the conference, in order to leverage existing bilateral travel grants with international partners. If anyone else has such grants that could be similarly leveraged, it would be greatly appreciated.

See you in Cape Town in 2015!

Ed + Anna-Lise

Ill prepared for an influenza pandemic

18 August, 2014

Over the last 500 years, there have been, on average, three severe influenza pandemics in each century. The most recent pandemic was declared in 2009. Yet despite much investment in public health and many improvements in vaccine production techniques and know-how, the availability of influenza vaccines during this event was far from adequate. Six months into the pandemic, 534 million doses were available, and after one year that number had risen to 1.3 billion — enough for only 8%and 25%, respectively, of the world population. We were lucky that the pandemic declared in 2009 turned out later to be mild and that just one shot of vaccine was sufficient to protect most people. This is not usually the case during a severe influenza pandemic.



"As countries continue to pre-book pandemic supply, it is more and more likely that the limited vaccines available during the first months of any pandemic during the next few years will be sold out almost completely"

And what does everyone think happened in South Africa during most of 2009 and 2010?

Well, they probably don’t – because not that many of them got sick.  But THERE WAS NO VACCINE for the general population until LATE 2010 – when the chances of another round of H1N1pdm 2009 had dissipated due to summer coming on.

And the vaccine that HAD come into the the country in 2010 got used for medical personnel, and – for the 2010 World Cup staff.

Seriously, we need to do better than this – and responding QUICKLY to news of a pandemic would be the ticket.

Using plants B-)

See on Scoop.itVirology News


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