Archive for the ‘HIV’ Category

Thabo Mbeki rides again. Let’s knock him off his horse, then!

7 March, 2016

Sixteen years ago, two colleagues and I wrote a letter to Nature expressing our concern about our then-President Thabo Mbeki’s denialist views on HIV and AIDS – views he then tried to push into national policy, and which almost certainly were highly influential in delaying the rollout of ARVs in South Africa.  I was also active for several years in the media and in public lectures in trying to negate some of the damage he was causing – and I was very relieved when he took a back seat eventually, and then effectively vanished from the public stage.

However, in an unwelcome development as of this week, it appears that Mr Mbeki has finally, in his ongoing quest to rewrite history, addressed the elephant in the room: his views on HIV/AIDS.

To say this “letter” is self-serving would be to pay it a compliment.  Indeed, he himself has this to say concerning the awful “Castro Hlongwane, Cats, Geese, Caravans, Foot and Mouth and Statistics…” that he almost certainly was the main author of, back there in 2002:

“Thirteen (13) years later today I would stand by everything said in this excerpt and still ask that the questions posed should be answered by those who have the scientific capacity to do so!”

So in other words, he still holds with much of the rubbish he wrote then.  Right – well, so will I revisit something I helped write, back in 2000, after reading that Mbeki had written to Bill Clinton to dispute conventional ideas on HIV/AIDS.

Nature 405: 273, 2000

AIDS dissidents aren’t victims – but the people their ideas kill will be

Sir – As South African scientists working in the field of HIV/AIDS vaccine research, we are extremely concerned about the letter president Thabo Mbeki recently sent other heads of state (Nature 404, 911; 2000). As an individual Mr Mbeki is entitled to his point of view, but as our head of state we feel he risks binding our country to an untenable position.

We would like Mr Mbeki and others to consider how the mass of South Africans would react if he were to give a sympathetic ear to unrepentant proponents of apartheid. His willingness to be influenced by people with no credibility causes as much anguish to those of us working to combat HIV/AIDS.

The simple facts, as shown by a huge volume of scientific and medical research, are that HIV causes AIDS; that in Africa (as in other developing regions) the disease is mainly spread heterosexually; and that AIDS kills poor people in disproportionate numbers. We most emphatically do not need to revisit the debate on the causation of AIDS. What we do urgently need is to educate, train and medicate, to save lives.”

This is germane, because Mbeki has the gall to go back to his Castro Hlongwane crap at the end of his latest letter, and say:

“Beneath the heartening facts about decreased mortality and increasing life expectancy, and many other undoubted health advances, lie unacceptable disparities in wealth. The gaps between rich and poor, between one population group and another, between ages and between sexes, are widening. For most people in the world today every step of life, from infancy to old age, is taken under the twin shadows of poverty and inequity, and under the double burden of suffering and disease.”

“Castro Hlongwane…” says: “Given that our minds on this matter (of HIV and AIDS) have become thoroughly clogged by the information communicated by the omnipotent apparatus, a miracle will have to be achieved to get all our people to use their brains, rather than perish on emotional responses based on greatly heightened levels of fear.”

Really, Thabo??  You’re going to harp on about poverty, again?  Oh, and the “omnipotent apparatus” that is Western Pharma, and of course US capitalism?

Please do us a favour, Comrade: go back to your pipe, and your old friends Johnny and Jack, and stop trying to justify the indefensible.  And I will close with something I wrote for the Mail & Guardian on March 1st back in 2002:

“It does not seem to matter what happens in our country; it does not matter how many people try to engage the slippery python that is the president’s policy and thinking on HIV/Aids; it does not seem to matter how many people die of Aids, and how many babies are needlessly born with HIV – there remains the stubbornness and wilful failure to comprehend that is leading us into disaster. Mr Mbeki, you make an idiot of yourself, and fools of us all for putting up with your views. Leave health policy alone, or resign. Please.

Ed Rybicki, Pinelands”

I see no reason to change my views either, Comrade.

Testing out a textbook on Virology

5 December, 2015

Like my recent books on History of Viruses and Influenza, I’m constructing an ebook Introduction to Virology textbook – and I’d like people’s opinions.

It’s going to look something like this:

Virus_Picture_Book_copy_2_iba

 

It will be based on my web pages that were so cruelly destroyed, but will be PROFUSELY illustrated, using all of the bells and whistles built into the iBooks Author app, with liberal use of Russell Kightley’s very excellent virus picture library.

And I will sell it for US$20 or less.

Tell me what you think of the taster – and there will be more.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 20-year Timeline – Emerging Infectious Disease journal – CDC

7 September, 2015

Emerging Infectious Diseases 20-year Timeline

Sourced through Scoop.it from: wwwnc.cdc.gov

It is well worth remembering that the CDC’s EID has been in the forefront of reliable reporting on emerging viral diseases – as well as others, of course – for a quarter century now.

And I’ve been getting it that long…they used to send it out for free, AND it was available on the Web from very early on, so I used to regularly use articles from it for teaching 3rd year students.

It is a great institution, and I wish it well!

See on Scoop.itAquatic Viruses

Virology Africa 2015: Update and Registration

19 August, 2015

REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN – VIROLOGY AFRICA 2015

On behalf of the Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine of the University of Cape Town and the Poliomyelitis Research Foundation, we are pleased to invite you to Virology Africa 2015 at the Cape Town Waterfront.

VENUE AND DATES:

The conference will run from Tuesday 1st – Thursday 3rd December 2015. The conference venue is the Radisson Blu Hotel with a magnificent view of the ocean. The hotel school next door will host the cocktail party on the Monday night 30th November and in keeping with Virology Africa tradition, the dinner venue is the Two Oceans Aquarium.

IMPORTANT DATES

Early Bird Registration closes – 30 September 2015
Abstract Submissions deadline – 30 September 2015

The ACADEMIC PROGRAMME will include plenary-type presentations from internationally recognised speakers. We wish to emphasise that this is intended as a general virology conference – which means we will welcome plant, human, animal and bacterial virology contributions. The venue will allow for parallel workshops of oral presentations. There will also be poster sessions. Senior students will be encouraged to present their research. We have sponsorship for students to attend the meeting and details will be announced later in the year.

A program outline has been added to the website

WORKSHOPS

Our preliminary programme includes two workshops.

There is a hands-on workshop on “Plant cell packs for transient expression: Innovating the field of molecular biopharming”, with the contact person being Dr Inga Hitzeroth – Inga.Hitzeroth@uct.ac.za. This workshop will run at UCT one day before the conference, 30th November, and a second day, 4th December, after the conference.

The second workshop is on “”Viromics for virus discovery and viral community analysis”. The workshop at UCT will be on 4 and 5 December with the contact person being Dr Tracy Meiring – tracy.meiring@uct.ac.za.

Some of the workshop presenters will be integrated into the conference programme but the practical components will be run at University of Cape Town. Separate applications are necessary for each workshop.

If you are prepared to fund an internationally recognised scientist to speak at the conference or if you wish to organise a specialist workshop as part of the conference, please contact
Anna-Lise Williamson or Ed Rybicki.

For any enquiries please contact
Miss Bridget Petersen/ Email: conference1@onscreenav.co.za or phone: +27 21 486 9111
Ms Deborah McTeer/Email: conference@onscreenav.co.za or +27 83 457 1975

Anyone interested? A candidate virology textbook…

28 July, 2015

I would like to test the response to a Introduction to Virology ebook that I want to develop from my extant Web-based material, given that this is likely to disappear soon with our Web renewal project here at UCT.

Virus_Picture_Book_copy_iba

Download the Virus Picture Book excerpt here. And then please tell me what you think / whether you would buy one (projected price US$15 – 20)?  Ta!

The guru speaks: new eBooks on viruses!

24 June, 2015

I have to thank my long-time digital media guru, Alan J Cann, for reviewing our humble eBook offerings in MicrobiologyBytes.  You good man!  Much appreciated, and it will not have escaped our attention that this endorsement may actually result in sales.  If so, a glass or three of the finest red is yours if you come to these shores, good sir B-)

Human retroviruses and cancer

13 March, 2015

The very early discovery of avian viruses associated with cancer, and the subsequent failure for many years to isolate similar viruses from mammals, gave some researchers the idea that possibly birds were unique in this regard.  However, “RNA tumour viruses” or oncornaviruses, as they were known for a time, were first demonstrated to affect mammals when mouse mammary tumours were shown to be due to a virus by John Bittner in 1936, by transmission in milk. He also demonstrated vertical transmission, or inheritance of the virus. 

The nature of the agent was not known at the time, but by 1951 L Gross had shown that leukaemia could be passaged in mice using cell-free extracts.  In 1958 W Bernhard had proposed a classification of what were to become known as retroviruses on the basis of electron microscopy.  In 1964 a mouse sarcoma virus and a feline leukaemia virus had been isolated, and in 1969 bovine leukaemia was shown to be a viral disease.  1970 saw the description of reverse transcriptase from retroviruses, and in 1971 the first primate leukaemia virus – from gibbons – was described, and the first retrovirus (foamy virus) described from humans.  Bovine leukaemia virus was characterised as a retrovirus in 1976.

It is not surprising, therefore, that many labs tried to find cancer-causing disease agents in humans.  However, such effort had been put into finding oncornaviruses associated with human tumours, with such lack of success, that it led to people talking of “human rumour viruses” – a useful list of which can be seen here.  Nevertheless, by 1980 Robert Gallo’s group had succeeded in findingtype C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma”, which they called human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV).  The breakthrough was made possible by their prior discovery of “T cell growth factor”, now called interleukin 2 (IL-2), which meant human T cells could be successfully cultured for the first time.  A group of Japanese researchers described an “Adult T cell leukemia virus” (ATLV) in 1982: this proved to be the same as what became HTLV-1, given the description also in 1982 by Gallo’s group of another retrovirus associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukaemia, which they dubbed HTLV-2. 

HTLV-1 is associated with the rare and genetically-linked adult T-cell leukaemia, found mainly in southern Japan, as well as with a demyelinating disease called “HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)” and HTLV-associated uveitis and infective dermatitis.  The areas of highest prevalence are Japan, Africa, the Caribbean islands and South America.  HTLV-2 had a mainly Amerindian and African pygmy distribution, although it is now found worldwide, and causes a milder form of HAM/TSP, as well as arthritis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.  It is is also frequent among injecting drug users.  However, except for rare incidences of cutaneous lymphoma in people coinfected with HIV, and the fact of its origin in a hairy cell leukaemia, there is no good evidence that HTLV-2 causes lymphoproliferative disease.  The two viruses infect between 15 and 20 million people worldwide.  HTLV-1 infections can lead to an often rapidly fatal leukaemia.

By 2005 another two viruses had joined the family: HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 were described from samples from Cameroon that were presumably zoonoses – being associated with bushmeat hunters – and which are not associated with disease.  Interestingly, all the HTLVs have simian counterparts – indicating species cross-over at some point in their evolution.   Collectively they are known as the primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLVs) as they consitute an evolutionarily related group.  Another relative is bovine leukaemia virus.

The HTLV-1/STLV-1 and HTLV-2/STLV-2 relationships are relatively ancient, at more than 20 000 years since divergence.  However, their evolution differs markedly in that STLV-I occurs in Africa and Asia among at least 19 species of Old World primates, while STLV-2 has only been found in bonobos, or  Pan paniscus dwarf chimpanzees from DR Congo.  It is therefore quite possible that there are other HTLVs undiscovered in primates in Africa and elsewhere, that may yet emerge into the human population.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was for a time after its discovery in 1983 called HTLV-III by the Gallo group and lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) by the Montagnier group; however, evidence later obtained from sequencing and genome organisation showed by 1986 that it was in fact a lentivirus, related to viruses such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and the equine infectious anaemia virus discovered in 1904, and it was renamed.  Francoise Barre-Sinoussie and Luc Montagnier were awarded a half share in a 2008 Nobel Prize, commemorated here

HIV particle.  Russell Kightley Media

HIV particle. Russell Kightley Media

in Viroblogy.

HIV is indirectly implicated in cancer because it creates an environment through immunosuppression that allows the development of opportunistic tumours that would normally be controlled by the immune system: these include HPV-related cervical cancer, and Kaposi’s sarcoma caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (see later).  It is also possible that HIV may directly cause lymphoma development in AIDS patients by insertional activation of cellular oncogenes, although this appears to be rare.

Back to Contents

A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses

6 March, 2015

Now much updated, streamlined, added to and otherwise tarted up!  This is the Web version of an eBook, which you can now get here:

A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses – Edward Rybicki

Slide1

Part 1: Filters and Discovery

Part 2: The Ultracentrifuge, Eggs and Flu

Part 3: Phages, Cell Culture and Polio

Part 4: RNA Genomes and Modern Virology

Sidebar 1: The Discovery of Filoviruses

Sidebar 2: Papillomaviruses and Human Cancer

Sidebar 3: Epstein-Barr Virus and Hepatitis B Virus

Sidebar 4: Human Retroviruses and Cancer

Sidebar 5: Maize Streak Virus: The Early History

Sidebar 6: Rinderpest and Its Eradication

Sidebar 7: Viruses and human cancer: the molecular age

Copyright Edward P Rybicki and Russell Kightley, February and March 2015, except where otherwise noted.

More Surprises in the Development of an HIV Vaccine

14 November, 2014

More Surprises in the Development of an HIV Vaccine

In the current issue of Frontiers in Immunology, Jean-Marie Andrieu and collaborators, report results from non-human primate experiments designed to explore a new vaccine concept aimed at inducing tolerance to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (1). This approach, which is significantly different from other vaccine concepts tested to date, resulted in a surprisingly high level of protection. If the results are confirmed and extended to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), this approach may represent a game changing strategy, which should be welcomed by a field that has been marred by mostly disappointing results.

 

HIV Graphic from Russell Kightley Media

 

Source: journal.frontiersin.org

This is a commentary by two well-respected friends of mine on a very surprising result published by the Andrieu group recently, which seems to have been ignored by the mainstream HIV vaccine world.

This is not surprising, in that Andrieu is an outsider in this field – he is a cancer researcher – but is typical of the disappointing tendency in science to ignore contributions from outside the various "Golden Circles" that exist for various specialties.

Something that should elicit interest, though, is that this group has shown that a previously obscure 

"…population of non-cytolytic MHCIb/E-restricted CD8+ T regulatory cells [that] suppressed the activation of SIV positive CD4+ T-lymphocytes".

This is interesting because Louis Picker’s groups’ recent findings, announced at the recent HIVR4P conference in Cape Town, highlighted the involvement of MHC-E proteins in what amounted to a cure of SIV infection in macaques by a modified Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) HIV vaccine vector (see here: http://www.iavireport.org/Blog/archive/2013/09/13/cmv-based-vaccine-can-clear-siv-infection-in-macaques.aspx). 

I tweeted at the time:

"Universal MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells – break all the rules for epitope recognition"

Could this be a link between the two mechanisms – both from way outside the orthodoxy, I will point out?

It will be interesting to see.

See on Scoop.itVirology News

Virology Africa 2015: consider yourselves notified!

7 November, 2014

Dear ViroBlogy and Virology News followers:

Anna-Lise Williamson and I plan to have another in our irregular series of “Virology Africa” conferences in November-December 2015, in Cape Town.

As previously, the conference will run over 3 days or so, possibly with associated workshops, and while the venue is not decided, we would like to base it at least partially in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront.

We also intend to cover the whole spectrum of virology, from human through animal to plant; clinical aspects and biotechnology.

We intend to make it as cheap as possible so that students can come. We will also not be inviting a slate of international speakers, as we have found that we always get quite an impressive slate without having to fund them fully.

It is also the intention to have a Plant Molecular Farming workshop – concentrating on plant-made vaccines – concurrently with the conference, in order to leverage existing bilateral travel grants with international partners. If anyone else has such grants that could be similarly leveraged, it would be greatly appreciated.

See you in Cape Town in 2015!

Ed + Anna-Lise


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