Dengue Virus Antibodies Enhance Zika Virus Infection

We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. 

Conclusions / Significance 

Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity will enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may increase disease severity. A clear understanding of the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses in regions where these viruses co-circulate and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

Zika virus graphic from Russell Kightley Media

Sourced through Scoop.it from: biorxiv.org

This is a big deal: a really big deal.  While people have been speculating around the issue for months now – yes, you, Neil Bodie! – this prepub appears to provide proof that prior immunity to the related dengue virus(es) may enhance Zika virus infection, without neutralising infectivity.  This is termed “antibody-dependent enhancement” (ADE), and is also a major factor in dengue haemorrhagic fever which results from ADE due to reinfection with a different dengue type.

It is also interesting because this is one of the first high-profile uses of the online preprint archive bioRxiv (STUPID name!) for a virology paper – which may open the floodgates, as people see what a good idea it potentially is.
The possibility that ADE exacerbates Zika infection means that the manifestations of Zika may be very different depending upon the seroprevalence of dengue and possibly yellow fever virus antibodies in the target population: where this is very low – as in the USA or Europe – there may be no real problem.  Where the seroprevalences are high – as is the case in Brazil and much of Central America – Zika infections may be much more severe.
We will wait and see.

See on Scoop.itVirology News

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