Archive for June, 2015

Inter-Seasonal Influenza is Characterized by Extended Virus Transmission and Persistence

26 June, 2015

Author Summary Human influenza virus commonly causes disease in the winter months of temperate countries, but exhibits more complex patterns in tropical localities. Most studies of this complex seasonality have only considered viruses sampled within the “normal” influenza season. To help reveal the drivers of influenza seasonality we utilized viruses sampled outside of the normal influenza season, focusing on Australia which is characterized by a wide range of climates. Using a phylogenetic a

Sourced through Scoop.it from: journals.plos.org

Nice piece of work: helps reinforce the notion that influenza doesn’t actually go away, especially in tropical and subtropical areas!

See on Scoop.itVirology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca

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The guru speaks: new eBooks on viruses!

24 June, 2015

I have to thank my long-time digital media guru, Alan J Cann, for reviewing our humble eBook offerings in MicrobiologyBytes.  You good man!  Much appreciated, and it will not have escaped our attention that this endorsement may actually result in sales.  If so, a glass or three of the finest red is yours if you come to these shores, good sir B-)

New Zealand Stresses that It Is High Plains Virus Free, and the Virus Struggles with an Identity Crisis

19 June, 2015

High Plains virus (HPV), a tentative member of the genus Emaravirus, causes a potentially serious economic disease in cereals. Recently, in this journal, Tatineni et al. (1) mistakenly reported HPV as being present in New Zealand, citing the paper by Lebas et al. from 2005 (2). The 2005 report clearly states that New Zealand is HPV free in both the abstract and the introduction (2). To date, HPV is not known to occur in New Zealand. The Ministry for Primary Industries of New Zealand has very strict regulations in place to prevent the importation of unwanted organisms such as HPV. For example, the importation of Zea maysseeds must follow the requirements stated in Import Health Standard 155.02.05 (for seed for sowing) (3), which includes testing of HPV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or PCR. The Tatineni et al. statement (1) will mislead regulatory officials of New Zealand’s trading partners who regularly monitor world microbe dynamics in the scientific literature. In fact, there are plant biosecurity actions in place (4) that directly affect New Zealand’s international trade when a regulated plant virus like HPV is reported as present.

 

Sourced through Scoop.it from: jvi.asm.org

Sigh…as a former plant virologist, I am very familiar with the potential confusion of acronyms of names of viruses that cause severe diseases in plants and in humans – like CMV for both cucumber mosaic and cytomegaloviruses, and AMV for alfalfa mosaic and avian myeloblastosis viruses.

However, this is the first time I have heard of another HPV – which, I will point out, is Human papillomavirus, and was named WAY before any High Plains virus was dreamt up.

I do wish the various branches and species of virologists would consult an authoritative source (like the ICTV Reports) before dreaming up acronyms.

See on Scoop.itVirology News

eBook on “Influenza Virus: Introduction to a Killer”

17 June, 2015

For some five years now, I have been simultaneously writing two ebooks on viruses. The one – originally part of a longer effort not yet finished – is “A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses” which is also advertised on Virology News; the other is a labour of love on influenza.

Labour of love for me because I got more into it the more I read, and because Russell Kightley’s images were so amazing.

Both were written using Apple’s iBooks Author app; both are designed to be read by Apple’s iBooks app on iPad, iPhone or Mac.

So here it is:

Influenza Virus: Introduction to a Killer

Enjoy. Buy!

Influenza_1-6-15_sample_iba

 

Move Over, Bacteria! Viruses Make Their Mark as Mutualistic Microbial Symbionts

3 June, 2015

Viruses are being redefined as more than just pathogens. They are also critical symbiotic partners in the health of their hosts. In some cases, viruses have fused with their hosts in symbiogenetic relationships. Mutualistic interactions are found in plant, insect, and mammalian viruses, as well as with eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, and some interactions involve multiple players of the holobiont. With increased virus discovery, more mutualistic interactions are being described and more will undoubtedly be discovered.

 

Sourced through Scoop.it from: jvi.asm.org

Some day we may realise that this is the norm for viruses – and that what we thought we knew about viruses is simply the behaviour of a simplistic and destructive subset of them that we labelled "pathogens".

It is beyond question that all organisms on this planet have evolved in the midst of a cloud of viruses: they have certainly shaped the evolution of immune systems and responses, let alone having directly influenced our evolution in ways like conferring cell fusion ability on cells that become the placenta in mammals.

It should therefore come as no surprise that viruses are very often commensals and even symbiotes.  While we generally don’t understand just how we and our other cellular brethren might benefit from intimate association with viruses, I am sure that every new virome will shed light on this – as well as unearthing more and more of the biological dark matter that is viruses.

Nice one, Marilyn!

See on Scoop.itVirology News