Archive for the ‘Influenza viruses’ Category

Scientists Find Compound That Helps HIV, Flu Vaccines – Health News – redOrbit

28 August, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“Oxford University scientists have discovered a compound that greatly boosts the effect of vaccines against viruses like flu, HIV and herpes in mice.”

 

Well, no, theyt haven’t: what they HAVE done is find that a very well known chemical has activity as an adjuvant – and very strong activity, it appears.

 

“The Oxford University team found that PEI, a standard polymer often used in genetic and cell biology, has strong adjuvant activity.
redOrbit (http://s.tt/1lPjE)”

 

It is also useful as a mucosal adjuvant, which is very useful for intranasal / oral vaccination strategies.

See on www.redorbit.com

Medicago Announces 2012 Second Quarter Financial Results: PR Newswire

15 August, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

Medicago Announces 2012 Second Quarter Financial Results PR Newswire QUEBEC CITY, Aug. 14, 2012 QUEBEC CITY , Aug. 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ – Medicago Inc.

“Subsequent to the second quarter:

Announced the successful completion of a key milestone under an agreement with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The milestone was the production of at least 10 million doses of H1N1 VLP influenza vaccine candidate in one month (the “rapid fire test”). The rapid fire test was conducted at Medicago’s facility in Durham, North Carolina. As part of the rapid fire test, production of the H1N1 VLP influenza vaccine candidate began on March 25th, 2012, and was completed in 30 days on April 24th, 2012. The production lots were then tested by a third party laboratory to confirm both the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate and the number of doses produced. Testing confirmed that a single dose of the H1N1 VLP influenza vaccine candidate induced protective levels of neutralizing antibodies in an animal model. The production of significantly more than 10 million doses, as defined by the testing conditions, were confirmed.”

This is a big, big deal – because they did this via transient epxression in plants, thus proving pretty much beyond doubt that this is now a serious vaccine manufacturing technology.

See on money.msn.com

Evidence for Antigenic Seniority in Influenza A (H3N2) Antibody Responses in Southern China

20 July, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca

“A key observation about the human immune response to repeated exposure to influenza A is that the first strain infecting an individual apparently produces the strongest adaptive immune response. Although antibody titers measure that response, the interpretation of titers to multiple strains – from the same sera – in terms of infection history is clouded by age effects, cross reactivity and immune waning. From July to September 2009, we collected serum samples from 151 residents of Guangdong Province, China, 7 to 81 years of age. Neutralization tests were performed against strains representing six antigenic clusters of H3N2 influenza circulating between 1968 and 2008, and three recent locally circulating strains. Patterns of neutralization titers were compared based on age at time of testing and age at time of the first isolation of each virus. Neutralization titers were highest for H3N2 strains that circulated in an individual’s first decade of life (peaking at 7 years). Further, across strains and ages at testing, statistical models strongly supported a pattern of titers declining smoothly with age at the time a strain was first isolated. Those born 10 or more years after a strain emerged generally had undetectable neutralization titers to that strain (<1:10). Among those over 60 at time of testing, titers tended to increase with age. The observed pattern in H3N2 neutralization titers can be characterized as one of antigenic seniority: repeated exposure and the immune response combine to produce antibody titers that are higher to more ‘senior’ strains encountered earlier in life.”

 

An interesting paper, which helps explain several observations made over the years with pandemic flu: for example, in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, older people seemed to be more protected – and rhe same was probably true of the 1918 pandemic.

See on www.plospathogens.org

Bird flu vaccine now? More than a shot in the dark | Reuters

11 July, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“LONDON (Reuters) – Culls of hundreds of thousands of chickens, turkeys and ducks to stem bird flu outbreaks rarely make international headlines these days, but they are a worryingly common event as the deadly virus continues its march across the globe.

As scientists delve deeper into H5N1 avian influenza, they have discovered it is only three steps way from mutating into a potentially lethal human pandemic form, adding new urgency to a debate over how to protect humans.

In 2009, during the H1N1 swine flu pandemic, vaccines only became available months after the virus had spread around the world – and even then there was only enough for one in five of the world’s 7 billion people.

Next time, experts say, we need another approach.

Talk is centred on “pre-pandemic vaccination” – immunising people years in advance against a flu pandemic that has yet to happen, and may never come, rather than rushing to create vaccines once a new pandemic starts.”

 

Yes, well: regulars of this blog will recognise that I have been rattling on about this topic for some time now; nice to see serious heavyweights are starting to do the same thing.

 

Seriously, pre-emptive vaccination could almost certainly not hurt, would probably help a LOT – and would amp up production capacity for H5 and other potential pandemic influenza viruses [see Mexico H7N3 outbreak] as well, for pandemic vaccine production readiness.

 

And of course, you could do it all in plants.  Just saying.

 

See on in.reuters.com

Science| Special Issue: H5N1 [exploring the “supervirus” controversy]

29 June, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“Introduction
The publication in this issue of these research papers on the airborne tranimssion [sic] of H5N1 marks the end of 8 months of controversy over whether some of the data, now freely accessible, should be withheld in the public interest.”

 

I think this is an important landmark in the so-called “dual use” debate: that is, the propensity of bodies in the US to attempt to regulate the release of information that MAY be usable in the making of bioweapons, or be usable in bioterror attacks.

 

Let us diffidently point out at this juncture that it is only really the superpowers who are definitively known in recent years to have had bioweapons programmes – apart from apartheid-era South Africa, that is! – and that damn nearly ANYTHING published on transmission or mechanisms of pathogenicity of human or animal pathogens (or even plant, for that matter) could be termed “dual use” if someone wanted to – and censored as a result.

 

It is also – as I tire of pointing out – possible to PROTECT against H5NX viruses using conventional vaccines right now – and the new universal flu vaccines coming on stream will almost certainly make this even more feasible.

 

The fact is that H5N1 flu is an ever-present threat to people living in Egypt, Indonesia, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand and China – WITHOUT being weaponised.  It is no more than a notional threat to the US or Europe – and keeping information that could help in understanding how or how soon the virus could mutate to pandemicity out of people’s hands, is simply stupid. 

See on www.sciencemag.org

Five Mutations Make H5N1 Airborne | The Scientist

23 June, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“After more than 6 months of heated discussion, the second group that succeeded in making the H5N1 avian flu transmissible between ferrets, considered a good model for human transmission, has published its results. The paper, which came out today (June 21) in Science, demonstrates that only five mutations are needed to confer this aerosol transmissibility among mammals, and that re-assortment between different types of viruses—a technique used by the other group, which published its results last month in Nature—is not necessary.

Said Fouchier in a press conference “We both find … loss of glycosylation at the tip of the HA molecule, and this loss of glycosylation seems to increase the receptor binding specificity of the HA”. And though not all the mutations identified in the two studies match, “the mutations that are not identical still have a similar phenotypic trait,” he added.”

 

So this is what all the fuss was about?  This is what the NSABB did not want everyone to know?  How could they POSSIBLY think that the international virology and infectious disease community should be kept in the dark about this?  What this work has done has pointed the way along a path that will lead us to understand why and how influenza viruses change in order to more effectively get transmitted when they switch hosts – which is a good thing, surely.

And yet all they see is bioterrorism.

See on the-scientist.com

Avian flu viruses which are transmissible between humans could evolve in nature

23 June, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

It might be possible for human-to-human airborne transmissible avian H5N1 influenza viruses to evolve in nature, new research has found.

The findings, from research led by Professor Derek Smith and Dr Colin Russell at the University of Cambridge, were published June 22 in the journal Science.
Currently, avian H5N1 influenza, also known as bird flu, can be transmitted from birds to humans, but not (or only very rarely) from human to human. However, two recent papers by Herfst, Fouchier and colleagues in Science and Imai, Kawaoka and colleagues in Nature reveal that potentially with as few as five mutations (amino acid substitutions), or four mutations plus reassortment, avian H5N1 can become airborne transmissible between mammals, and thus potentially among humans. However, until now, it was not known whether these mutations might evolve in nature.
The Cambridge researchers first analysed all of the surveillance data available on avian H5N1 influenza viruses from the last 15 years, focusing on birds and humans. They discovered that two of the five mutations seen in the experimental viruses (from the Fouchier and Kawaoka labs) had occurred in numerous existing avian flu strains. Additionally, they found that a number of the viruses had both of the mutations.
Colin Russell, Royal Society University Research Fellow at the University of Cambridge, said: “Viruses that have two of these mutations are already common in birds, meaning that there are viruses that might have to acquire only three additional mutations in a human to become airborne transmissible. The next key question is ‘is three a lot, or a little?’ “

 

So: was it a good idea to publish those two papers on mutating H5N1 viruses, or not?  Given that as I and many other more famous people pointed out, if you don’t know what makes the viruses mammal-to-mammal transmissible, you don’t know what to look for – and now we do, and look what they found.  This story will run, and run, and run – so we really, really should include an H5 consensus HA in seasonal flu vaccines!!

See on www.sciencedaily.com

Narcolepsy traced to specific [flu] vaccine batches

4 June, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“A new Swedish study shows that all Swedes who developed narcolepsy from the swine flu vaccine Pandemrix received the vaccine from 12 of the 35 batches, despite the claim by the responsible agency that no such connection exists.”

There are some slightly disturbing connections between the H1N1 2009 pdm virus and narcolepsy: the virus itself seems to have caused narcolepsy in some of those infected; now a vaccine is implicated – is this an innate property of certain of the virus proteins, possibly?

See on www.thelocal.se

Nano Patents and Innovations: Powerful New Approach To Attack Flu Virus

28 May, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca

An international research team has manufactured a new protein that can combat deadly flu epidemics.

The paper, featured on the cover of the current issue of Nature Biotechnology, demonstrates ways to use manufactured genes as antivirals, which disable key functions of the flu virus, said Tim Whitehead, assistant professor of chemical engineering and materials science at Michigan State University.

See on nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.fr

Pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccination produces antibodies against multiple flu strains

27 May, 2012

See on Scoop.itVirology News

“The pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine can generate antibodies in vaccinated individuals not only against the H1N1 virus, but also against other influenza virus strains including H5N1 and H3N2.”

 

And a possible reason for this could be that the H1N1pdm virus’ haemagglutinin is a natural “ancestral” sequence – the kind that HIV vaccine researchers are looking for for gp120/160, which have been shown to elicit a wider spectrum of cross-reacting antibodies than “evolved” proteins, or ones that have been selected for antigenic escape in humans for a good few viral generations.

 

Flu vaccine graphic by Russell Kightley Media

See on www.eurekalert.org


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